This article addresses the issue of formation of professional competences of future foreign language teachers within the framework of distance learning. Extensive research was conducted to explore the concept of "distance learning," which entails indirect interaction between students and teachers through the utilization of information and communication technologies, digital resources, various devices, electronic communication tools, and telecommunication services. The study examines the evolutionary stages of distance learning, including correspondence education, case study, broadcasting learning, and networking learning. Furthermore, it identifies different models of distance learning, such as distance learning based on a single university with the traditions of classical education, distance learning based on the cooperation of several educational institutions, and distance learning at universities specially created for this purpose. The article also delves into the organizational and methodological components of distance learning, which encompass the marketing, educational and material, financial and economic, and identification and control subsystems. Additionally, it presents a comprehensive analysis of the advantages and disadvantages associated with distance learning.